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zeptodb
1 Introduction
  1.1 Tutorial
  1.2 Common Options
2 Commands
  2.1 zdbc
  2.2 zdbs
  2.3 zdbf
  2.4 zdbr
  2.5 zdbi
Appendix A Copying This Manual
  A.1 GNU Free Documentation License
Index
zeptodb
*******

This manual is for zeptodb (version 3.0, updated 12 June 2016).

   Copyright (C) 2013, 2016 Brandon Invergo

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and
     no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the
     section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

     A copy of the license is also available from the Free Software
     Foundation Web site at <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/fdl.html>.

   The document was typeset with GNU Texinfo (http://www.texinfo.org/).

1 Introduction
**************

zeptodb is a small collection of relatively tiny command-line tools for
interacting with "DBM databases".  DBM databases are flat
(non-relational) a databases; in other words, they are persistent
key-value hash tables.  Typically they are created via a library for C,
Python, Perl, etc.  These tools fill in a gap by providing useful
command-line tools.  Some DBM libraries come with really basic binaries
for manipulating the databases, but they are not designed to be very
flexible or useful in the real world.

   These tools may be helpful in scripts, for example, when persistant
data storage is needed but when a full database would be overkill.  DBM
databases offer a constant look-up time for any record in them, as
opposed to, say, searching through a text file, which scales linearly
with the number of lines in the file.  Thus, scripts requiring fast data
look-up would benefit greatly from them (but note that, of course, disk
access is slower than memory access, so if you really need the
performance and you can fit your table in memory, these are not the
appropriate tools).  These commands may also be useful if, for whatever
reason, one would like to manipulate, via the command-line or scripts,
DBM databases created by other programs.

1.1 Tutorial
============

The zeptodb tools are used to create small databases that are stored to
disk and then to store, fetch and remove records from those databases.
These databases are much simpler than, say, SQL databases, so no queries
need to be constructed.  The databases follow the DBM format as created
by the GDBM library.  Each record in a DBM database consists of a key
and a value.  All keys and values are stored as plain text, regardless
of their formats.

   First, you create a new database with 'zdbc':

     $ zdbc foo.db

   With the database created, you may now store values to it using
'zdbs'.  'zdbs' normally takes its input from 'stdin'.  It expects one
record per line and for each key/value pair to be separated by a
delimiter character ('|' by default).  Note that records are unique: an
attempt to store a record with a pre-existing key will overwrite that
record with a new value.

   For example, let's say that you have a text file 'emails.txt'
containing the following records:

     Brandon|foo@example.com
     Joe|bar@example.com
     Mary|baz@example.com

   You could store the records in 'foo.db' like so:

     $ zdbs foo.db <emails.txt

   Note that if you simply don't like shell redirections like this, you
can also use the '-i' or '--input' option to specify the input file:

     $ zdbs -i emails.txt foo.db

   Of course, it's more likely that you'll want to pipe in records from
some other process:

     $ fancy_pipeline.sh | zdbs foo.db

   If your records are formatted differently, using, say, '-' as the
delimiter (i.e "key-value"), you would specify it using the '-d' or
'--delimiter' option.

   Records can then be fetched from the database using 'zdbf'.  In this
case, queries in the form of keys with one key per line are read from
'stdin':

     $ zdbf foo.db
     Brandon
     foo@example.com
     Joe
     bar@example.com
     Jon
     ../trunk/src/zdbf: Key does not exist in the database: Jon: Invalid argument

   As with 'zdbs', you can also specify a file containing the queries
using the '-i' option or you can read them in through a pipe.

   If you would prefer the output to include the key, you must specify
your desired delimiter using the '-d' option:

     $ echo Brandon | zdbf -d':' foo.db
     Brandon:foo@example.com

   Finally, you can dump out all of the contents of the database using
the '-a' option.  Note that the order of the records is in no way
guaranteed.

     $ zdbf -d'|' -a foo.db
     Joe|bar@example.com
     Brandon|foo@example.com
     Mary|baz@example.com

   Records may then be removed from the database using 'zdbr'.  'zdbr'
operates in a very similar way to 'zdbf':

     $ zdbr foo.db <<EOF
     > Brandon
     > Joe
     > EOF
     $ zdbf -a -d'|' foo.db
     Mary|baz@example.com

   Of course, these examples are not realistic.  Rather than using the
programs from the command-line, you are more likely to use them in
scripts.  For example, one script might save data to a database while
another script reads from that data.  You can even build up relations
between multiple databases, storing the keys of one database as values
in another database, allowing quite complex, but always fast, look-ups
within your scripts.

1.2 Common Options
==================

The following options are available for all zeptodb commands.

'-b, --block-size=NUM'
     The block size (in bytes) to be used, representing the size of a
     transfer from disk to memory.  The default value is 512.

'-m, --mmap-size=NUM'
     The size (in bytes) of the memory-mapped region to be used.  With a
     value greater than zero, a memory map of the database will be
     created; thus the size specified must be large enough to fit the
     entire database.

'-c, --cache-size=NUM'
     The size (in bytes) of the bucket cache size to be used.

'-l, --no-lock'
     Do not perform file locking an the database.

'-n, --no-mmap'
     Do not create a memory map of the database.

'-v, --verbose'
     Print more run-time information.

'-?, --help'
     Show helpful information.

'--usage'
     Show shorter helpful information.

'-V, --version'
     Print the program version.

2 Commands
**********

Five commands are provided with zeptodb: 'zdbc', for creating databases,
'zdbs' for storing records in them, 'zdbf', for fetching records,
'zdbr', for removing records, and 'zdbi' for displaying information
about a database.

2.1 zdbc
========

'zdbc' is used to create a new database file.  It accepts all of the
common options.  Running the command on an existing database will
_overwrite_ the existing contents!

   In addition to the database file to be used and the common options,
the 'zdbc' command accepts the following options:

'-s, --sync'
     Automatically synchronize all database operations to the disk.

2.2 zdbs
========

'zdbs' is used to store records in a database file.  Records are entered
via 'stdin' or, optionally, they are read from an input file, with one
record per line.  Each record should consist of one key-value pair.  The
values should be separated from the keys by a common delimiter ('|' by
default), for example "key|value".

   In addition to the database file to be used and the common options,
the 'zdbs' command accepts the following options:

'-d, --delim=CHAR'
     Delimiter character separating keys from values (default '|').

'-i, --input=FILE'
     Read new records from a file instead of from 'stdin'.

'-s, --sync'
     Automatically synchronize all database operations to the disk.

2.3 zdbf
========

'zdbf' is used to fetch records from a database file.  Queries are read
from 'stdin' or, optionally, from a text file.  Records with key values
that match the queries will be printed to 'stdout'.  By default, only
the corresponding values will be printed.  However, if a delimiter
character is provided, both keys and values will be printed.  Finally,
an option is available to simply print all records in the database.

   In addition to the database file to be used and the common options,
the 'zdbf' command accepts the following options:

'-a, --all'
     Fetch all the records in the database.

'-d, --delim=CHAR'
     Delimiter character to separate printed keys from values (default
     none; only values will be printed).

'-i, --input=FILE'
     Read queries from a file instead of from 'stdin'.

2.4 zdbr
========

'zdbr' is used to remove records from a database.  The records to be
removed are specified by their keys and are entered via 'stdin' or,
optionally, they are read from a text file.  If many records are removed
from the database, some fragmentation can occur.  In this case, it is
advisable to reorganize the database, which is possible via the
'--reorganize' option.

   In addition to the database file to be used and the common options,
the 'zdbf' command accepts the following options:

'-i, --input=FILE'
     Read queries from a file instead of from 'stdin'.

'-r, --reorganize'
     Reorganize the database.

'-s, --sync'
     Automatically synchronize all database operations to the disk.

2.5 zdbi
========

'zdbi' prints out information on a database file.  It accepts the common
options.

Appendix A Copying This Manual
******************************

A.1 GNU Free Documentation License
==================================

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     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts."  line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit
their use in free software.

Index
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